Pathology

In June 2004 the department of Pathology started functioning with various activities including investigative services, teaching and training of M.B.B.S., students. Since then the department has progressed rapidly in terms of expansion in services, recruitment of capable faculty members, paramedical & supportive staff as well as installation of sophisticated and modern equipments.

The department has started a graduate research laboratory. In addition, range of various immunohistochemical stains which have been added now help in further making a more specific diagnosis. For better services a fully Automated Tissue Processor, a semi-automated strainer and a Cryostat have been added.

Teaching & Training M.B.B.S.

Teaching of undergraduate students is done by modern methods by use of audio-visual aids, projection slides, seminars and group discussions.

The department participates in training of in-service doctors from Puducherry . The department conducts regular weekly biopsy-cytology rounds with clinicians. The staff participates in various clinical meetings, Intradepartmental discussions on difficult cases. Journal club & seminars are held weekly.

The faculty & Senior residents are encouraged to pursue research work & publications and present their work at Zonal, Regional & National level conferences.

Departmental Library : Departmental library is having more than 100 recent edition books on various sub-specialties.

Museum : The department has one of the best organized and modern museum. The museum has about 200 specimen (mounted & wet). Another unique feature includes display of educational materials such as numerous line drawings of specimens, charts of pathogenesis, similes of common terms used in pathology and a gallery full of portraits of famous pathologists with their major contribution tracing the history of Pathology.

Diagnostic services

The pathology department caters laboratory services to the patients of the Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital as well as outside patients. The laboratory services are given under the following categories.

  • Clinical pathology laboratory – in the Hospital.
  • Cytology laboratory – in the Hospital.
  • Blood Bank – in the Hospital.
  • Histopathology – in the College.
  • Immunohistochemistry - in the College.

Clinical pathology laboratory

Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the department is located in the hospital close to the OPDs for patient’s convenience. It offers routine diagnostic services to the patients like

Routine hematology- Complete Hemogram which includes
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC) by *Merck CA60 automated Blood cell counter of 18 parameters with three part differential and *5 part differential by Wheecon ABX of 23 parameters
  • Blood smear Report,
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Microhematocrit, micro ESR
Other specialized hematological work up are also done including
  • Reticulocyte count
  • Bone marrow studies
  • Coagulation work up with Bleeding time, Clotting time, Prothrombin time, Activated partial thromboplastin time and D-Dimer test for FDP.
  • Hemolytic work up with Osmotic fragility test, Sickling test, Coombs test and Hams test.
  • Leukemia work up which includes cytochemical stains like PAS, Sudan black with basic immunohistochemical markers for T& B cells like CD 3, CD 20 & CD 45.
  • Lymphoma work up includes the markers mentioned above with CD 15, CD 30 &CD 20 for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Urine strips reagent and reader are used routine urine tests.

Cytology laboratory

The departmental cytology laboratory is situated in the hospital in the other OPDs for patients’ convenience.

  • Routine FNACs from breast, thyroid, Lymph node etc. by aspiration as well as non-aspiration techniques.
  • Guided FNACs are done mainly by USG guidance on request from the clinicians. Few CT guided are also being done.
  • Fluid cytology like ascitic fluid, synovial fluid,CSF, etc. and Semen Analysis are being done in the lab.
  • Routine Pap smear screening is done for cervical cytology.

Blood bank

Blood Bank works round the clock to serve the patients during emergency and elective therapeutic procedures. Apart from the routine Blood donation, cross matching and Coomb’s test, Blood Grouping camps in other institutes & companies are also conducted. The Blood Bank maintains a voluntary Blood donor database to help the patients. Recently the Blood bank has been upgraded for component separation. RBC concentrate, platelet concentrate and fresh frozen plasma are issued to the patients, depending on the indications.

Histopathology laboratory

Histopathology laboratory receives specimens from the operation theatres in the hospital. After grossing, processing is done by Leica automated Electronic tissue processor. Apart from the routine Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, special stains for fungus,, bacteria, TB, Lepra bacilli, iron, melanin, and mucin are regularly used.

Immunohistochemistry laboratory

Immunohistochemistry lab is functioning with epithelial markers (cytokeratin, EMA), soft tissue markers ( Desmin, Vimentin ,SMA, S 100, NSE, Melan A), Lymphoid markers ( CD 3, CD 20, CD 15, CD 30, CD 45) and hormone receptors ( ER,PR Her2).

Museum

A Well organized museums functioning in the department with 300 mounted specimens, catalogues, display folders with gross and microscopic descriptions.

Library

The list of text books, reference books, national and international journals available in the central and departmental library.

Journal subscription for the year 2013

No. Name of the Journal Freq Ind/Foreign
1 Asian Jnl of Transfusion Science 2 Indian
2 Indian Jnl of Cancer 4 Indian
3 Indian Jnl of Haematology& Blood transfusion 4 Indian
4 Indian Jnl of pathology & Microbiology 4 Indian
5 Jnl of cancer Research & Therapeutics 4 Indian
6 Jnl of Cytology Indian
7 Jnl of Pathology Informatics 4 Indian
8 ACTA Cytological 6 Foreign
9 Diagnostic Molecular Pathology 6 Foreign
10 Haematology/Oncology clinics of North America 6 Foreign
11 Pathology case Review 6 Foreign
12 Pathology case Review 6 Foreign

Academic Activities

(UG & PG Teaching schedule and evaluation as per Pondicherry university guidelines)

Academic Activities/Faculties for Under Graduate Students

(III, IV & V semesters) – Duration 1 ½ years

Lecture classes – are of 1 hour duration each

  • III semester – 3 hours/ week
  • IV semester – 2 hours/week
  • V semester – 3 hours/week

Didactic lectures are taken with usage of power point presentation and necessary illustrations.

Practicals- 2 hours duration in a week for each batch

They are conducted using various modalities

  • Small group discussion under each faculty
  • Slide/gross specimen demonstration
  • Group discussion/clinicopathological case discussion
  • Record work

Seminars- 2 hours per month on ongoing topics

Quiz/ symposium/OSPE- Once in 6 months for each semester.

Clinical pathology postings- Aimed at hands on teaching of routine hematological techniques, Blood Bank procedures, Urine analysis, sputum and body fluid analysis. Short topic presentation and evaluation with end posting practical test are carried out.

Academic evaluation – Monthly internal Assessment test with practical and viva; term test at the end of each semester; model theory and practical exam with viva before the University exams.

Research activities – ICMR Short term projects – 4 are completed and 3 are ongoing

Lecture halls – 200 seating capacity. Air conditioned with LCD, OHP facilities with continuous internet connection.

Practical hall – there are 2 fully equipped practical halls – one for surgical pathology slides and specimen demonstration and the other for clinical pathology and hematology exercises. Students are provided with individual monocular microscopes – 65 in morbid anatomy practical hall and 40 in clinical pathology students’ practical hall.

Demonstration rooms – 2 in number one with LCD, OHP Facilities. Other one equipped with CCTV attached Trinocular microscopes for slide demonstration.

Academic achievements of M.B.B.S students

Batch Pass Percentage Distinctions University Ranks
2006-2007 99% 23 1st, 3rd,4th, 7th,8th,9th,10th
2007-2008 98% 21 1th, 4th, 5th,10th
2008-2009 94% 21
2009-2010 95% 22
2010-2011 93.4% 30

Post Graduate Training

Two batches of Post Graduate students are posted in the different sections of the department

Dissertation topics include

  • Neuronal changes in leprosy
  • Epidermal and dermal adnexal tumors
  • Cytological study of non neoplastic lymph nodal lesions
  • Hormonal receptors in endometrial hyperplasia
  • Cytology of head and neck lesions,
  • Soft tissue tumors of skin,
  • Efficacy of packed cells in different medical conditions
  • Correlation of imprint smear and histological features in breast lesions
  • Ovarian cysts and associated changes in endometrium.

Routine seminars, slides discussions, gross discussions, histopathology techniques are conducted in the department. Proper evaluation of students is done with weekly slide tests, gross discussions and theory examinations. Attending slide conferences, National and international CME s and paper and poster presentation are always encouraged. Three Post-graduate students got best paper award in the recently conducted CME in Tamilnadu.

Post Graduate Academic Activities

  • 1 month orientation to different sections in Pathology postings
  • 3 months rotational postings in Histopathology and Cytology, Clinical Pathology &Blood bank sections
Histopathology section

Post graduates will be performing the day to day work in the department with the guidance of faculty, like:

  • Grossing of surgical pathology specimens
  • Daily screening of Histopathology slides.
  • Routine staining procedures
  • Special stains
  • Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence
  • Histopathological techniques
  • Museum techniques
  • Record maintenance
Cytology section
  • FNAC procedures
  • CT/USG guided FNAC
  • Screening of slides
Clinical Pathology reporting
  • Fluid cytology reporting
  • Urine analysis including microscopy of deposits
  • Semen analysis
Hematology section
  • Routine hematology techniques
  • Screening for hemoparasites
  • Peripheral smear reporting
  • Special stains
  • Coagulation studies
  • Bone marrow aspiration
  • Work up for Nutritional and hemolytic anemias
  • Lymphoma /Leukemia work up
Blood bank
  • Routine procedures -screening of donors, phlebotomy
  • Cross matching
  • Component separation techniques
  • Record maintenance
Autopsy section
  • Routine autopsy techniques
  • Legal implication like getting consent
  • Autopsy reporting
Teaching
  • Lecture classes for BSc nursing
  • Practical classes for 2nd MBBS

Departmental research activities include Dissertation of postgraduate students, paper presentations- oral, poster and publications in various journals and participation in Scientific committee meetings

Weekly Schedule for Post Graduates

  • Monday – Teaching discussion /WHO slides
  • Tuesday – Slide seminar
  • Wednesday – Short topics/Seminar
  • Thursday – Gross discussion
  • Friday – Journal club

Log book is maintained to record individual PG activity and periodically evaluated.

Interdepartmental Meeting – Case Discussions

Clinicopathological meetings are conducted with the departments of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Dermatology and Orthopedics

Scientific Meetings

  • Ongoing hospital scientific committee meeting is conducted on last Friday of every month
  • Recent advances in Pathology
  • Clinicopathological case presentations.

Pathology Meet

Conducted once in 2 to 3 months involving all the medical colleges in Pondicherry.